Antioxidant Activities of Different Polarity Extracts from Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Leaves and Isolation of Antioxidant Compound

Irda Fidriany, Komar Ruslan, Jhoni Saputra

Abstract


Introduction: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale (L.)) has been cultivated by the people as a medicinal plant. These plant parts can be used as a source of traditional medicines such as leaves, seeds, and artificial fruit. Cashew leaves contain some compounds that act as antioxidants, hypoglycemic, antipyretic.

Objective: The aim of this research were to determine antioxidant capacity of different polarity extracts of cashew Anacardium occidentale) leaves by using DPPH assays, its correlation with total flavonoid, phenolic, tannin content and isolation of antioxidant compound. Crude drug was extracted by reflux and using solvent with increasing polarity, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. Antioxidants activities of the extracts were tested by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Total flavonoids, total phenols in extracts were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and total tannins was measured by gravimetric. Ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC). Purification was done by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC). Isolate was characterized by specific spray reagent, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and IR spectrophotometry. Crude drug of cashew leaves contain flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and steroids / triterpenoids. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (93 %) was given by ethanol extract (with density of extract was 1.19 g/mL). Ethyl acetate extract had the highest total phenolic (1.98 g GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid. (2.99 g QE/100 g). While the highest total tannins 2.04 % was given by ethanol extract. Antioxidant activities cashew leaves extracts had significantly correlation with total phenolic, total flavonoid and total tannin. An antioxidant compound J which was isolated from ethyl acetate extract was flavonoid compound. Flavonoid, phenolic and tannin compounds were the major contributors in antioxidant activities of cashew leaves. Antioxidant compounds J was supposed to be flavonols aglycone , that had free OH in C-3.


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